Longer essays may also contain an introductory page that defines words and phrases of the essay's topic. Most academic institutions require that all substantial facts, quotations, and other porting material in an essay be referenced in a bibliography or works cited page at the end of the text. This scholarly convention helps others (whether teachers or fellow scholars) to understand the basis of facts and quotations the author uses to support the essay's argument and helps readers evaluate to what extent the argument is supported by evidence, and to evaluate the quality of that evidence. The academic essay tests the student's ability to present their thoughts in an organized way and is designed to test their intellectual capabilities.
The CIPD (2008, ) also report on the 'dark-side' of charisma and suggest that although some leaders may superficially appear charismatic they hide undesirable characteristics such as dishonesty and greed. By the time such characteristics are discovered the organisation and employees may have suffered irreparable harm. Research undertaken by Collins (2001, cited in CIPD, 2008, ) investigated common characteristics in US companies quoted on the Stock Exchange whose performance was 'outstanding'. The findings indicated that common characteristics included an unshakable belief in their company and also a 'deep personal humility'. These CEOs were not at all charismatic and appeared to be quite unassuming. Collins also noted that failing companies had a CEO 'with a gargantuan ego' causing the company to fail (Collins 2001, cited in CIPD, 2008, ).
Although Taylor's pay system is useful to some extent, it is only practical when the goals of both sides are the same: profitability. If their goals are contradictory, employees will prefer working for their own interest to companies' goals, as suggested by the pluralists. (Roberts 2008) In that case, business ethnics may be sacrificed, resulting in poor quality products and a dishonest culture. For example, in 2007, a BBC investigation suggested that staff at a high-street bank were encouraged by their supervisors to lie to the bank's customers in order to hit their personal sales target. (Marcourse 2008 pp140) This dishonest behavior, though boosts revenue in the short-term, loses valuable reputation in the long-term. Implementing a monitoring scheme could ensure the quality theoretically, but it cannot ensure the best possible quality in practice. Therefore, it is important for managers to strike a balance between pay motivation, product quality and the companies' goals. To achieve this, managers, on one hand, should "track employees' behavior and employees' attitude regularly" (Rynes 2004 pp391) to ensure workers' effort are in line with organizations' objectives. This assists managers to implement appropriate pay systems. On the other hand, managers can use other intrinsic motivators, such as self actualization and responsibilities, as suggested by Herzberg, to offset the disadvantages of pay motivation and improve workers' satisfaction.