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In the early nineteenth century, national independence movements swept through Latin America. However, some scholars have categorized these wars for independence as civil wars, since the majority of combatants on both sides were Latin Americans. Criollos, although a numerical minority (roughly 15% of the Latin American population in the early nineteenth century), led the push for political independence and clearly gained the most from it. In contrast, most of the combatants were mestizos (roughly 25% of the population) and indios (roughly 45% of the population) whose positions in society after national independence were scarcely improved and sometimes even made worse.
Latin America can be divided into several musical areas . Andean music , for example, includes the countries of western South America, typically Peru , Bolivia , Argentina , Ecuador , Chile and Venezuela ; Central American music includes Nicaragua , El Salvador , Belize , Guatemala , Honduras , and Costa Rica . Caribbean music includes the Caribbean coast of Colombia , Panama , and many Spanish and French-speaking islands in the Caribbean, including Haiti , the Dominican Republic , Cuba , Puerto Rico , and the less noted Martinique and Guadeloupe . The inclusion of the French West Indies varies by scholars.  Brazil perhaps constitutes its own musical area, both because of its large size and incredible diversity as well as its unique history as a Portuguese colony. Although Spain isn't a part of Latin America, Spanish music (and Portuguese music ) and Latin American music strongly cross-fertilized each other, but Latin music also absorbed influences from the Anglo-Saxon world, and particularly, African music.