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Jacob wisely cultivates very different relationships with each of his wives. His first wife, Leah, is his partner in running the camp. She manages the cooking and the children, making sure that the day-to-day work is always done. Leah is the quintessential mother, giving birth to eight children and breastfeeding several that do not belong to her. Jacob speaks to her almost as an equal, and he affords her the respect of a business partner. Rachel is his beautiful love, the woman he asked to marry the first time he met her. Though she cannot give him many children and is often away from camp serving as a midwife, he remains devoted to her and loves her deeply. He shares his most intimate thoughts with her. He does not have a conventionally marital relationship with Zilpah, although he does try in the beginning of their relationship to befriend her. She bears him twin sons, fulfilling her duty as wife, then asks not to return to his bed. Their relationship slowly settles into one of mutual respect. Bilhah and Jacob have a quiet, warm relationship, in which they spend many nights together and bear one son, Dan. Bilhah does not act like Leah as a consultant or partner, nor does she serve like Rachel as Jacob’s great love, but their relationship is a comfortable one until she is discovered with Reuben, her true love. In general, it is Rachel and Leah who quietly compete for Jacob’s attention, and he carefully splits his time between them.

A third writer who gained attention during this period in the ., though not a . citizen, was the Jamaican Marcus Garvey (1887–1940), a newspaper publisher, journalist, and crusader for Pan Africanism through his organization, the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA). He encouraged people of African ancestry to look favorably upon their ancestral homeland. He wrote a number of essays published as editorials in the UNIA house organ—;the Negro World newspaper. Some of his lecture material and other writings were compiled and published as nonfiction books by his second wife, Amy Jacques Garvey, as the Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey Or, Africa for the Africans (1924) and More Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey (1977).

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