Finally, speakers should consider time limits when choosing an informative speech topic. A topic should be covered thoroughly enough that the audience feels as if most of their questions on the topic have been answered. On the other hand, a tight time restriction may prevent the speaker from adequately covering a very intricate topic. When time is limited, a subject which requires lengthy explanation should be avoided. The audience should leave an informative speech feeling as if they’ve gained new insight on a topic. It is good if they are interested in doing their own research to learn more about the subject, but they should never leave the presentation feeling confused or unclear about what they have just heard.
Both social and cognitive factors affect language learning. Exploration of social factors gives us some idea of why learners differ in rate of L2 learning, in proficiency type (for instance, conversational ability versus writing ability), and in ultimate proficiency (Ellis, 1994). Research based on direct (self-report questionnaires) and indirect measures generally shows that learners with positive attitudes, motivation, and concrete goals will have these attitudes reinforced if they experience success. Likewise, learners' negative attitudes may be strengthened by lack of success or by failure (McGroarty, 1996). Needless to say, although ESL learners may have negative attitudes toward writing for academic purposes, many of them are financially and professionally committed to graduating from English-speaking universities, and as a result, have strong reasons for learning and improving their skills.